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Comparative Studies

Evaluation Criteria PEB BUILDING CONCRETE BUILDING
Fabrication Precise fabrication: Members fabricated in a controlled environment and up to 50% saving in fabrication time on site. Fabrication done on site; Requires building the reinforcement cage and shuttering work prior to pouring.
Delivery and Logistics Can be delivered in desired sequence anywhere in the world. Might have to build batch plant on site if site is secluded or huge.
Installation Time 50% saving in construction time. Fast Installation with no idle time Slow and time consuming: The contractor will have to wait for the previous cast to harden (14-28 days) before being able to cast next batch.
Quality Quality of steel is guaranteed because
  • It is a homogeneous product.
  • Pieces are tailored according to shop drawings.
  • Precise machinery is used for fabrication.
  • It is fabricated under shop control.
  • Quality is not affected by weather conditions
Many factors lead to quality deterioration
  • Concrete is not a homogeneous product.
  • Concrete mix ingredient ratios are difficult to maintain.
  • Quality of water used may vary.
  • Weather conditions.
  • Labor experience in pouring.
  • Adequate use of vibrators.
  • Using proper curing methods.
  • Concrete shrinkage.
  • High manpower count may weaken control.
Cost Savings of 10%-15% for large span steel building. Construction cost is high at site.
Industrial Applications Saving on maintenance cost: Can easily handle equipment such as multiple cranes within building. Sways can be controlled. Precision can be achieved during installation. Heavy equipment usage such as cranes is limited.
Commercial & Infrastructure Applications Better aesthetics and longer spans can be achieved using steel as building component. Limited designs are possible with concrete.

Comparison by Applications

FACTORIES

Options Cost of Construction Speed of Construction Ease of Construction
PEB Most Economical Fastest Most Simple
Concrete Less Economical Slowest Cumbersome

WAREHOUSES

Options Cost of Construction Speed of Construction Ease of Construction
PEB Most Economical Fastest Most Simple
Concrete Less Economical Slowest Cumbersome

MALLS & RETAIL SHOPPING CENTERS

Options Cost of Construction Speed of Construction Ease of Construction
PEB Economical Fastest Most Simple
Concrete Most Economical Slowest Most Cumbersome

RECREATIONAL BUILDINGS

Options Cost of Construction Speed of Construction Ease of Construction
PEB Economical Fastest Most Simple
Concrete Most Economical Slowest Most Cumbersome

Steel Vs Concrete

Evluation Criteria PEB BUILDING CONCRETE BUILDING STEEL ADVANTAGE
Building Dimensions Suitable for spans 20-30m. Can sustain much larger spans. Suitable for spans 20-30m. Can sustain much larger spans. 12%-50% Cost saving for long span steel building
Fabrication Members fabricated in a controlled environment.
Precise fabrication.
Fabrication done on site.
Requires building the reinforcement cage and shuttering work prior to pouring.
90% saving in fabrication time on site.
Delivery and Logistics Can be delivered anywhere in the world.
Can be properly sequenced.
Might have to build batch plant on site if site is secluded or huge. Capital Investment saving.
Erection Time Fast erection. Virtually no idle time Slow erection and time consuming.
Pouring should take place in limited amount of time. If exceeded, the concrete quality may be jeopardized.
The contractor will have to wait for the previous cast to harden (14-28 days) before being able to cast another batch.
50% saving in construction time.
Industrial Applications Can easily handle equipment such as multiple cranes within building.
Sways can be controlled.
Precision can be achieved during installation.
  • Heavy equipment usage such as cranes is limited.
  • To solve precision problems, contractors use steel I beams and platforms in concrete buildings.
Saving on maintenance cost.
Quality Quality of steel is guaranteed because
  • It is a homogeneous product.
  • Pieces are tailored according to shop drawings.
  • Precise machinery is used for fabrication.
  • It is fabricated under shop control.
  • Quality is not affected by weather conditions
Many factors lead to quality deterioration
  • Concrete is not a homogeneous product
  • Concrete mix ingredient ratios are difficult to maintain.
  • Quality of water used may vary.
  • Weather conditions.
  • Labor experience in pouring.
  • Adequate use of vibrators.
  • Using proper curing methods.
  • Concrete shrinkage.
  • High manpower count may weakan control.
Less time is spent to maintain steel quality.
Cost
  • Low man power count needed.
  • Erection cost is low at site
Construction cost is high at site -
Modulability & Scalability
  • Can change a section of the building or even cancel a section with controlled effort and with little effect on structure stability and functionality.
  • Expansion is easy. Longitudinally expansion is about adding more bays and connecting the secondary members and the sheeting to the old building.
  • Needs a lot of planning and has usually major consequences. Might be even impossible.
  • To expand, the contractor has to build a new structure with foundations, columns and might have to break part of the old structure in order to expand it.
Lower modification cost.
Error Modification
  • Easy to modify on site, even after erection.
  • Modification can be done by cutting, welding or attaching steel pieces.
  • Have to break concrete if modification is necessary.
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Consistency and Reliability
  • Strength is assured from design.
  • Steel properties are stable with time.
  • Strength cannot be guaranteed without testing.
  • Concrete properties may change over time and environmental conditions
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Seismic Effect
  • Ductility of steel provides flexible behavior under seismic loads. Light Steel structures minimize the seismic effect on the structure.
  • Steel is heavier than concrete but is 18 times stronger. A steel member can hold 6 times its own weight.
  • Poor flexibility under seismic loads. Heavy structures maximize the seismic effect on the structure.
  • Heavy self weight. Large portion of concrete strength consumed to resist effect of its own weight.
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Ductility
  • Show signs of failure when overloaded.
  • Gives chance to fix the problem.
  • No warning signs.
  • May result in disastrous collapse.
  • Steel reinforcement is used to prevent brittle failure.
Steel building requires less costly safety measures